Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), minimally invasive or open, is performed in the setting of instability or stenosis in the lumbar spine. Patients with spinal trauma or conditions such as spondylolisthesis may benefit from this procedure. Surgery is performed from the back of the spine. A biocompatible cage or spacer is inserted into the disc space between the spinal bones along with bone graft during TLIF. In addition, spinal implants such as screws and rods are used to help stabilize the spine while the bones heal and fuse together. Careful selection of patients who may benefit from this procedure is required before surgery can be successfully performed.